October, 10 2019

Nonpharmacological Approaches Used by Parents of Children With Sickle Cell Disease and the Effectiveness of Education Given to Nonpharmacological Approaches


1 Turkey site



About the study

Aim: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary disease. Approximately 5% of the world’s
population carries trait genes for haemoglobin disorders, mainly, sickle-cell disease and
thalassaemia. The incidence of sickle cell disease varies according to different geographical
locations. Persons with SCD experience both acute and chronic pain. it is important that
nonpharmacological therapies be investigated and used as complements to pharmacological
therapies to address and treat both acute and chronic pain for those with SCD. An educational
program involving parents with children with SCD can help parents use nonpharmacological
methods for their children in reducing pain. The training program allows parents to develop
their knowledge of the SCD and the importance of non-pharmacological methods, and may provide
parents with the opportunity to develop preventive attitudes towards reducing pain crises.
The research has two purposes. The first is to identify the non-pharmacological approaches
that parents use to help their children with sickle cell disease in Turkey, Chad. Second, to
determine the effectiveness of non-pharmacological approaches given to parents in Turkey,

Method: This study is an experimental research method using a quasi‐experimental design. This
study used a pretest and posttest, with a design that is used is the two group
pretest-posttest design. The study was conducted on the parents of children with sickle cell
disease diagnosed and followed up in the Pediatric Hematology Oncology polyclinics of two
hospitals in Chad in Central Africa between September 2015 and February 2016. The study found
in April 2016 and July 2016 between Turkey’s southern Antalya and Mersin two university
hospital outpatient Children’s pediatric hematology oncology has made clinic on sickle cell
disease diagnosed and monitored the children’s parents. The parents were selected using
eligibility criteria and the study was performed in three steps (Pre-intervention testing
session, education session, and post-intervention testing session). In the first step,
“Information Form”, “Parents’ Experience of Nonpharmacological Methods Questionnaire”, and
“Nonpharmacological Approaches Used by Parents for Their Children and Knowledge of Parents
about Nonpharmacological Approaches Questionnaire” questionnaires were applied to parents. In
the second step an individual education was conducted by the researcher using the education
book. In the third step, the questionnaire were reapplied after 3 weeks.

Study Type






Inclusion Criteria

– Turkish is spoken by parents and in Chad, parents can speak either Arabic or French

– that at least one member of the family knows how to either read or write

– parents agreeing to face-to-face interviewing

Exclusion Criteria

– the participant to come out of his own accord


  • Other

Outcome measures

  • Information form
  • Nonpharmacological approaches of pain relief parental information questionnaire
  • Parents' experience of nonpharmacological approaches questionnaire


  • Emine EFE, Antalya, Turkey, 07058

More info

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